Anti-inflammatory effect of the Salvia sclarea L. ethanolic extract on lipopolysaccharide-induced periodontitis in rats

J Ethnopharmacol. 2017 Mar 6:199:52-59. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2017.01.020. Epub 2017 Jan 16.


Ethnopharmacological relevance: Salvia sclarea L., clary, is an aromatic plant traditionally used in folk medicine for the treatment of various diseases and conditions. Although it has been primarily used as a stomachic, there are data on traditional use of S. sclarea as an agent against gingivitis, stomatitis and aphthae.

Aim of the study: The aim of the study was to examine the effect of the S. sclarea ethanolic extract on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced periodontitis in rats from the immunological and histopathological standpoint.

Material and methods: Periodontal inflammation in rats was induced by repeated injections of LPS from Escherichia coli into the interdental papilla between the first and second right maxillary molars. The extract was administered two times a day by oral gavage (200mg/kg body weight). The inflammatory status was assessed by the measurements of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) of gingival tissues and descriptive analysis of histological sections of periodontium. Chemical characterization of the extract was determined using high performance liquid chromatography system (HPLC). Antioxidant activity of the extract was estimated with two in vitro complementary methods: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and β-carotene/linoleic acid models.

Results: Treatment with S. sclarea extract, compared to the untreated group of the rats, significantly diminished the process of inflammation decreasing the levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α, reducing the gingival tissue lesions and preserving bone alveolar resorption. Considerably smaller number of inflammatory cells and larger number of fibroblasts was noticed. The administration of the extract three days earlier did not have significant preventive effects. Rosmarinic acid was the predominant compound in the extract. The extract showed strong antioxidant effects in both test systems.

Conclusions: S. sclarea extract manifested anti-inflammatory effect in LPS-induced periodontitis suggesting that it may have a role as a therapeutic agent in periodontal diseases. Having in mind that overproduction of reactive oxygen species is connected to periodontitis, the strong antioxidant capacity may be contributable to anti-inflammatory properties of the extract.

Keywords: Antioxidant activity; Ethanolic extract; Lipopolysaccharide-induced periodontitis; Rats; Rosmarinic acid; Salvia sclarea L..

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / isolation & purification
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Ethanol / pharmacology
  • Ethanol / therapeutic use
  • Inflammation Mediators / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Inflammation Mediators / metabolism
  • Lipopolysaccharides / toxicity*
  • Male
  • Periodontitis / chemically induced
  • Periodontitis / drug therapy*
  • Periodontitis / metabolism
  • Plant Extracts / isolation & purification
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology
  • Plant Extracts / therapeutic use*
  • Random Allocation
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Salvia*
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Inflammation Mediators
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Plant Extracts
  • Ethanol