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Review
. 2017 Apr;242(8):781-787.
doi: 10.1177/1535370216688802. Epub 2017 Jan 1.

New Methods for Monitoring Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Mitophagy in Vitro and in Vivo

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Free PMC article
Review

New Methods for Monitoring Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Mitophagy in Vitro and in Vivo

Jessica A Williams et al. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Removal of damaged mitochondria through mitophagy is critical for maintaining cellular homeostasis and functions. Increasing evidence implicates mitophagy in red blood cell differentiation, neurodegeneration, macrophage-mediated inflammation, ischemia, adipogenesis, drug-induced tissue injury, and cancer. Considerable progress has been made toward understanding the biochemical mechanisms involved in mitophagy regulation. However, few reliable assays to monitor and quantify mitophagy have been developed, particularly in vivo. In this review, we summarize the recent development of three assays, MitoTimer, mt-Keima and mito-QC, for monitoring and quantifying mitophagy in cells and in animal tissues. We also discuss the advantages and limitations of these three assays when using them to monitor and quantify mitophagy. Impact statement Removal of damaged mitochondria through mitophagy is critical for maintaining cellular homeostasis and functions. However, reliable quantitative assays to monitor mitophagy, particularly in vivo, are just emerging. This review will summarize the current novel quantitative assays to monitor mitophagy in vivo.

Keywords: Autophagy; MitoTimer; Mt-Keima; mito-QC; mitophagy.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Monitoring mitochondria biogenesis in primary hepatocytes using AAV-MitoTimer. Primary mouse hepatocytes were infected with AAV-TBG-MitoTimer (1000 GC/cell) for 72 h followed by confocal microscopy. Arrows denote red-only old mitochondria and arrow heads denote green-only newly synthesized mitochondria.

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