Massive Effect on LncRNAs in Human Monocytes During Fungal and Bacterial Infections and in Response to Vitamins A and D

Sci Rep. 2017 Jan 17;7:40598. doi: 10.1038/srep40598.


Mycoses induced by C.albicans or A.fumigatus can cause important host damage either by deficient or exaggerated immune response. Regulation of chemokine and cytokine signaling plays a crucial role for an adequate inflammation, which can be modulated by vitamins A and D. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) as transcription factors or cis-acting antisense RNAs are known to be involved in gene regulation. However, the processes during fungal infections and treatment with vitamins in terms of therapeutic impact are unknown. We show that in monocytes both vitamins regulate ncRNAs involved in amino acid metabolism and immune system processes using comprehensive RNA-Seq analyses. Compared to protein-coding genes, fungi and bacteria induced an expression change in relatively few ncRNAs, but with massive fold changes of up to 4000. We defined the landscape of long-ncRNAs (lncRNAs) in response to pathogens and observed variation in the isoforms composition for several lncRNA following infection and vitamin treatment. Most of the involved antisense RNAs are regulated and positively correlated with their sense protein-coding genes. We investigated lncRNAs with stimulus specific immunomodulatory activity as potential marker genes: LINC00595, SBF2-AS1 (A.fumigatus) and RP11-588G21.2, RP11-394l13.1 (C.albicans) might be detectable in the early phase of infection and serve as therapeutic targets in the future.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Bacterial Infections / genetics*
  • Bacterial Infections / microbiology
  • Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects*
  • Humans
  • Monocytes / metabolism*
  • Mycoses / genetics*
  • Mycoses / microbiology
  • RNA, Antisense / genetics
  • RNA, Long Noncoding / chemistry
  • RNA, Long Noncoding / genetics*
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics
  • RNA, Untranslated / genetics
  • Vitamin A / metabolism
  • Vitamin A / pharmacology*
  • Vitamin D / metabolism
  • Vitamin D / pharmacology*


  • RNA, Antisense
  • RNA, Long Noncoding
  • RNA, Messenger
  • RNA, Untranslated
  • Vitamin A
  • Vitamin D