Aims: To assess whether the dual-hormone (insulin and glucagon) artificial pancreas reduces hypoglycaemia compared to the single-hormone (insulin alone) artificial pancreas in outpatient settings during the day and night.
Material and methods: In a randomized, three-way, crossover trial we compared the dual-hormone artificial pancreas, the single-hormone artificial pancreas and sensor-augmented pump therapy (control) in 23 adults with type 1 diabetes. Each intervention was applied from 8 AM Day 1 to 8 PM Day 3 (60 hours) in outpatient free-living conditions. The primary outcome was time spent with sensor glucose levels below 4.0 mmol/L. A P value of less than .017 was regarded as significant.
Results: The median difference between the dual-hormone system and the single-hormone system was -2.3% (P = .072) for time spent below 4.0 mmol/L, -1.3% (P = .017) for time below 3.5 mmol/L, and -0.7% (P = .031) for time below 3.3 mmol/L. Both systems reduced (P < .017) hypoglycaemia below 4.0, 3.5 and 3.3 mmol/L compared to control therapy, but reductions were larger with the dual-hormone system than with the single-hormone system (medians -4.0% vs -3.4% for 4.0 mmol/L; -2.7% vs -2.2% for 3.5 mmol/L; and -2.2% vs -1.2% for 3.3 mmol/L). There were 34 hypoglycaemic events (<3.0 mmol/L for 20 minutes) with control therapy, 14 with the single-hormone system and 6 with the dual-hormone system. These differences in hypoglycaemia were observed while mean glucose level was low and comparable in all interventions (P = NS).
Conclusions: The dual-hormone artificial pancreas had the lowest risk of hypoglycaemia, but the differences were not statistically significant. Larger studies are needed.
Keywords: artificial pancreas, closed-loop insulin delivery, glucagon; hypoglycaemia; insulin therapy; randomised trial; type 1 diabetes.
© 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.