Cocaine addiction as a homeostatic reinforcement learning disorder

Psychol Rev. 2017 Mar;124(2):130-153. doi: 10.1037/rev0000046. Epub 2017 Jan 16.


Drug addiction implicates both reward learning and homeostatic regulation mechanisms of the brain. This has stimulated 2 partially successful theoretical perspectives on addiction. Many important aspects of addiction, however, remain to be explained within a single, unified framework that integrates the 2 mechanisms. Building upon a recently developed homeostatic reinforcement learning theory, the authors focus on a key transition stage of addiction that is well modeled in animals, escalation of drug use, and propose a computational theory of cocaine addiction where cocaine reinforces behavior due to its rapid homeostatic corrective effect, whereas its chronic use induces slow and long-lasting changes in homeostatic setpoint. Simulations show that our new theory accounts for key behavioral and neurobiological features of addiction, most notably, escalation of cocaine use, drug-primed craving and relapse, individual differences underlying dose-response curves, and dopamine D2-receptor downregulation in addicts. The theory also generates unique predictions about cocaine self-administration behavior in rats that are confirmed by new experimental results. Viewing addiction as a homeostatic reinforcement learning disorder coherently explains many behavioral and neurobiological aspects of the transition to cocaine addiction, and suggests a new perspective toward understanding addiction. (PsycINFO Database Record

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cocaine-Related Disorders / metabolism
  • Cocaine-Related Disorders / psychology*
  • Craving
  • Homeostasis
  • Humans
  • Learning Disabilities / psychology*
  • Psychological Theory
  • Rats
  • Receptors, Dopamine D2 / metabolism
  • Recurrence
  • Reinforcement, Psychology*
  • Self Administration


  • Receptors, Dopamine D2