Purpose: Collagen barrier membranes were first introduced to regenerative periodontal and oral surgery to prevent fast ingrowing soft tissues (ie, epithelium and connective tissue) into the defect space. More recent attempts have aimed at combining collagen membranes with various biologics/growth factors to speed up the healing process and improve the quality of regenerated tissues. Recently, a new formulation of enamel matrix derivative in a liquid carrier system (Osteogain) has demonstrated improved physico-chemical properties for the adsorption of enamel matrix derivative to facilitate protein adsorption to biomaterials. The aim of this pioneering study was to investigate the use of enamel matrix derivative in a liquid carrier system in combination with collagen barrier membranes for its ability to promote osteoblast cell behavior in vitro.
Materials and methods: Undifferentiated mouse ST2 stromal bone marrow cells were seeded onto porcine-derived collagen membranes alone (control) or porcine membranes + enamel matrix derivative in a liquid carrier system. Control and enamel matrix derivative-coated membranes were compared for cell recruitment and cell adhesion at 8 hours; cell proliferation at 1, 3, and 5 days; and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) at 3 and 14 days for genes encoding Runx2, collagen1alpha2, alkaline phosphatase, and bone sialoprotein. Furthermore, alizarin red staining was used to investigate mineralization.
Results: A significant increase in cell adhesion was observed at 8 hours for barrier membranes coated with enamel matrix derivative in a liquid carrier system, whereas no significant difference could be observed for cell proliferation or cell recruitment. Enamel matrix derivative in a liquid carrier system significantly increased alkaline phosphatase mRNA levels 2.5-fold and collagen1alpha2 levels 1.7-fold at 3 days, as well as bone sialoprotein levels twofold at 14 days postseeding. Furthermore, collagen membranes coated with enamel matrix derivative in a liquid carrier system demonstrated a sixfold increase in alizarin red staining at 14 days when compared with collagen membrane alone.
Conclusion: The combination of enamel matrix derivative in a liquid carrier system with a barrier membrane significantly increased cell attachment, differentiation, and mineralization of osteoblasts in vitro. Future animal testing is required to fully characterize the additional benefits of combining enamel matrix derivative in a liquid carrier system with a barrier membrane for guided bone or tissue regeneration.