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Efficacy of PermaNet® 3.0 and PermaNet® 2.0 Nets Against Laboratory-Reared and Wild Anopheles Gambiae Sensu Lato Populations in Northern Tanzania


Efficacy of PermaNet® 3.0 and PermaNet® 2.0 Nets Against Laboratory-Reared and Wild Anopheles Gambiae Sensu Lato Populations in Northern Tanzania

Eliningaya J Kweka et al. Infect Dis Poverty.


Background: Mosquitoes have developed resistance against pyrethroids, the only class of insecticides approved for use on long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). The present study sought to evaluate the efficacy of the pyrethroid synergist PermaNet® 3.0 LLIN versus the pyrethroid-only PermaNet® 2.0 LLIN, in an East African hut design in Lower Moshi, northern Tanzania. In this setting, resistance to pyrethroid insecticides has been identified in Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes.

Methods: Standard World Health Organization bioefficacy evaluations were conducted in both laboratory and experimental huts. Experimental hut evaluations were conducted in an area where there was presence of a population of highly pyrethroid-resistant An. arabiensis mosquitoes. All nets used were subjected to cone bioassays and then to experimental hut trials. Mosquito mortality, blood-feeding inhibition and personal protection rate were compared between untreated nets, unwashed LLINs and LLINs that were washed 20 times.

Results: Both washed and unwashed PermaNet® 2.0 and PermaNet® 3.0 LLINs had knockdown and mortality rates of 100% against a susceptible strain of An. gambiae sensu stricto. The adjusted mortality rate of the wild mosquito population after use of the unwashed PermaNet® 3.0 and PermaNet® 2.0 nets was found to be higher than after use of the washed PermaNet® 2.0 and PermaNet® 3.0 nets.

Conclusions: Given the increasing incidence of pyrethroid resistance in An. gambiae mosquitoes in Tanzania, we recommend that consideration is given to its distribution in areas with pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors within the framework of a national insecticide-resistance management plan.

Keywords: Anopheles gambiae; Exophily; Experimental hut; Long-lasting insecticidal nets; Mortality; Personal protection rate; Resistance; Tanzania.


Fig. 1
Fig. 1
Contact bioassays for the detection susceptibility test for permethrin tolerant An. gambiae . a knockdown effect; b mortality rate after 24 h before washing, after washing 20 times and after experimental hut trial
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
Contact bioassays for the permethrin tolerant Anopheles gambiae, a knockdown effect; b mortality rate after 24 h, before washing, after washing 20 times and after experimental hut trial
Fig. 3
Fig. 3
Personal protection rate (a) and killing effects (b) of evaluated nets against wild populations of An. gambiae mosquitoes
Fig. 4
Fig. 4
Species identification of wild An. gambiae mosquitoes. Lane 1 negative control, Lane 2 and 36 DNA ladder, Lane 3 An. gambiae positive control, Lane 4 An. arabiensis positive control, Lane 5 An. quadriannulatus positive control, Lane 6 An. merus positive control, Lane 7–35 DNA of mosquitoes

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