The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) have been shown to regulate skeletal muscle function. Previously, we showed that MAPK phosphatase-5 (MKP-5) negatively regulates myogenesis and regeneration of skeletal muscle through inhibition of p38 MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). However, the identity and contribution of MKP-5-regulated MAPK targets in the control of skeletal muscle function and regenerative myogenesis have not been established. To identify MKP-5-regulated MAPK substrates in skeletal muscle, we performed a global differential phospho-MAPK substrate screen in regenerating skeletal muscles of wild type and MKP-5-deficient mice. We discovered a novel MKP-5-regulated MAPK substrate called guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rab3A (GRAB) that was hyperphosphorylated on a phospho-MAPK motif in skeletal muscle of MKP-5-deficient mice. GRAB was found to be phosphorylated by JNK on serine 169. Myoblasts overexpressing a phosphorylation-defective mutant of GRAB containing a mutation at Ser-169 to Ala-169 (GRAB-S169A) inhibited the ability of C2C12 myoblasts to differentiate. We found that GRAB phosphorylation at Ser-169 was required for the secretion of the promyogenic cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6). Consistent with this observation, MKP-5-deficient mice exhibited increased circulating IL-6 expression as compared with wild type mice. Collectively, these data demonstrate a novel mechanism whereby MKP-5-mediated regulation of JNK negatively regulates phosphorylation of GRAB, which subsequently controls secretion of IL-6. These data support the notion that MKP-5 serves as a negative regulator of MAPK-dependent signaling of critical skeletal muscle signaling pathways.
Keywords: cytokine; dual specificity phosphoprotein phosphatase; mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK); myogenesis; phosphoproteomics; skeletal muscle.
© 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.