Human Milk Oligosaccharides Influence Neonatal Mucosal and Systemic Immunity

Ann Nutr Metab. 2016;69 Suppl 2(Suppl 2):42-51. doi: 10.1159/000452818. Epub 2017 Jan 20.


The immune system of the infant is functionally immature and naïve. Human milk contains bioactive proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates that protect the newborn and stimulate innate and adaptive immune development. This review will focus on the role human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) play in neonatal gastrointestinal and systemic immune development and function. For the past decade, intense research has been directed at defining the complexity of oligosaccharides in the milk of many species and is beginning to delineate their diverse functions. These studies have shown that human milk contains a higher concentration as well as a greater structural diversity and degree of fucosylation than the milk oligosaccharides in other species, particularly bovine milk from which many infant formulae are produced. The commercial availability of large quantities of certain HMO has furthered our understanding of the functions of specific HMO, which include protecting the infant from pathogenic infections, facilitating the establishment of the gut microbiota, promoting intestinal development, and stimulating immune maturation. Many of these actions are exerted through carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions with pathogens or host cells. Two HMOs, 2'-fucosyllactose (2'FL) and lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT), have recently been added to infant formula. Although this is a first step in narrowing the compositional gap between human milk and infant formula, it is unclear whether 1 or 2 HMO will recapitulate the complexity of actions exerted by the complex mixture of HMO ingested by breastfed infants. Thus, as more HMO become commercially available, either isolated from bovine milk or chemically or microbially synthesized, it is anticipated that more oligosaccharides will be added to infant formula either alone or in combination with other prebiotics.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Child Development
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunity
  • Immunity, Mucosal
  • Infant Formula / chemistry*
  • Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Lactation*
  • Milk, Human / chemistry*
  • Milk, Human / immunology
  • Oligosaccharides / immunology
  • Oligosaccharides / metabolism*


  • Oligosaccharides