Liver involvement in congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG). A systematic review of the literature

J Inherit Metab Dis. 2017 Mar;40(2):195-207. doi: 10.1007/s10545-016-0012-4. Epub 2017 Jan 20.


Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are a rapidly growing family of genetic diseases caused by defects in glycosylation. Nearly 100 CDG types are known so far. Patients present a great phenotypic diversity ranging from poly- to mono-organ/system involvement and from very mild to extremely severe presentation. In this literature review, we summarize the liver involvement reported in CDG patients. Although liver involvement is present in only a minority of the reported CDG types (22 %), it can be debilitating or even life-threatening. Sixteen of the patients we collated here developed cirrhosis, 10 had liver failure. We distinguish two main groups: on the one hand, the CDG types with predominant or isolated liver involvement including MPI-CDG, TMEM199-CDG, CCDC115-CDG, and ATP6AP1-CDG, and on the other hand, the CDG types associated with liver disease but not as a striking, unique or predominant feature, including PMM2-CDG, ALG1-CDG, ALG3-CDG, ALG6-CDG, ALG8-CDG, ALG9-CDG, PGM1-CDG, and COG-CDG. This review aims to facilitate CDG patient identification and to understand CDG liver involvement, hopefully leading to earlier diagnosis, and better management and treatment.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation / diagnosis*
  • Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation / pathology*
  • Glycosylation
  • Humans
  • Liver / pathology*