Aquatic systems can be subjected to multiple stressors, including pollutant cocktails and elevated temperature. Evaluating the combined effects of these stressors on organisms is a great challenge in environmental sciences. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the molecular stress response of an aquatic fish species subjected to individual and combined pesticide mixtures and increased temperatures. For that, goldfish (Carassius auratus) were acclimated to two different temperatures (22 and 32°C) for 15 days. They were then exposed for 96h to a cocktail of herbicides and fungicides (S-metolachlor, isoproturon, linuron, atrazine-desethyl, aclonifen, pendimethalin and tebuconazole) at two environmentally relevant concentrations (total concentrations of 8.4μgL-1 and 42μgL-1) at these two temperatures (22 and 32°C). The molecular response in liver was assessed by 2D-proteomics. Identified proteins were integrated using pathway enrichment analysis software to determine the biological functions involved in the individual or combined stress responses and to predict the potential deleterious outcomes. The pesticide mixtures elicited pathways involved in cellular stress response, carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolisms, methionine cycle, cellular functions, cell structure and death control, with concentration- and temperature-dependent profiles of response. We found that combined temperature increase and pesticide exposure affected the cellular stress response: the effects of oxidative stress were more marked and there was a deregulation of the cell cycle via apoptosis inhibition. Moreover a decrease in the formation of glucose by liver and in ketogenic activity was observed in this multi-stress condition. The decrease in both pathways could reflect a shift from a metabolic compensation strategy to a conservation state. Taken together, our results showed (1) that environmental cocktails of herbicides and fungicides induced important changes in pathways involved in metabolism, cell structure and cell cycle, with possible deleterious outcomes at higher biological scales and (2) that increasing temperature could affect the response of fish to pesticide exposure.
Keywords: Biological pathways; Carassius auratus; Herbicides; Physiological temperature stress; Proteomic.
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