Mucosal immunity induced through natural infection by influenza virus has potent cross-protective activity, compared to subcutaneous vaccination-induced systemic immunity. Compared to natural infection with influenza virus, however, a single intranasal vaccination with an inactivated influenza virus vaccine and poly(I:C) is not sufficient to induce primary immune response in naïve animals. The reasons for this moderate effect are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrated that intranasal vaccination with formalin-inactivated influenza virus vaccine and poly(I:C) for five consecutive days elicits high levels of virus-specific nasal IgA and serum IgG responses, while vaccination without poly(I:C) induced little response. Mice immunized with influenza virus vaccine and poly(I:C) for five consecutive days sustained high levels of virus-specific IgA in nasal wash and IgG in serum until at least 6months after vaccination. Furthermore, intranasal vaccination with influenza virus vaccine and poly(I:C) protected mice against homologous and heterologous influenza virus challenge. These results suggest that consecutive inoculations of influenza virus vaccine and poly(I:C) is an alternative method to induce primary immune responses in naïve subjects.
Keywords: Adjuvant; IgA; Influenza virus; Intranasal vaccine; poly(I:C).
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