Bubble-Induced Endothelial Microparticles Promote Endothelial Dysfunction

PLoS One. 2017 Jan 23;12(1):e0168881. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0168881. eCollection 2017.

Abstract

Decompression sickness is a systemic pathophysiological process caused by bubbles and endothelial microparticles (EMPs) are established markers reflecting competency of endothelial function and vascular biology. Here, we investigated the effects of bubble-induced EMPs on endothelial cells in vitro and vivo. Rat pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) were isolated and stimulated by bubbles and bubble-induced EMPs were collected and incubated with normal PMVECs in vitro. Cell viability and apoptosis were detected using Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and Annexin V FITC/PI double staining, respectively. Cell permeability and pro-inflammatory cytokines were determined by electric cell substrate impedance sensing and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Intracellular nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production were analyzed microscopically. In vivo study, bubble-induced EMPs were intravenously injected to the rats and soluble thrombomodulin, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, and vascullar adhesion molecule 1 were involved in evaluating endothelial dysfunction. In our study, bubble stimulus resulted in a significant increase of EMPs release by 3 fold. Bubble-induced EMPs significantly decreased cell viability and increased cell apoptosis. Moreover, bubble-induced EMPs induced abnormal increase of cell permeability and over-expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Intracellular ROS production increased while NO production decreased. These negative effects caused by bubble-induced EMPs were remarkably suppressed when EMPs pretreated with surfactant FSN-100. Finally, intravenous injection of bubble-induced EMPs caused elevations of soluble thrombomodulin and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the circulation. Altogether, our results demonstrated that bubble-induced EMPs can mediate endothelial dysfunction in vitro and vivo, which can be attenuated by EMPs abatement strategy. These data expanded our horizon of the detrimental effects of bubble-induced EMPs, which may be of great concern in DCS.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell-Derived Microparticles*
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Endothelium, Vascular / physiopathology*
  • Male
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley

Grant support

This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81501624) to JX. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.