An Adult Health Care-Based Pediatric to Adult Transition Program for Emerging Adults With Type 1 Diabetes

Diabetes Educ. 2017 Feb;43(1):87-96. doi: 10.1177/0145721716677098. Epub 2016 Nov 15.


Purpose The purpose of the study was to evaluate an adult health care program model for emerging adults with type 1 diabetes transitioning from pediatric to adult care. Methods Evaluation of the Pediatric to Adult Diabetes Transition Clinic at the University of Pennsylvania included a cohort of 72 emerging adults with type 1 diabetes, ages 18 to 25 years. Data were extracted from transfer summaries and the electronic medical record, including sociodemographic, clinical, and follow-up characteristics. Pre- and postprogram assessment at 6 months included mean daily blood glucose monitoring frequency (BGMF) and glycemic control (A1C). Paired t tests were used to examine change in outcomes from baseline to 6 months, and multiple linear regression was utilized to adjust outcomes for baseline A1C or BGMF, sex, diabetes duration, race, and insulin regimen. Open-ended survey responses were used to assess acceptability amongst participants. Results From baseline to 6 months, mean A1C decreased by 0.7% (8 mmol/mol), and BGMF increased by 1 check per day. Eighty-eight percent of participants attended ≥2 visits in 6 months, and the program was rated highly by participants and providers (pediatric and adult). Conclusions This study highlights the promise of an adult health care program model for pediatric to adult diabetes transition.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / therapy*
  • Female
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / analysis
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Program Evaluation*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Transition to Adult Care*
  • Young Adult


  • Blood Glucose
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • hemoglobin A1c protein, human