Tripartite motif (TRIM) family proteins, most of which have E3 ubiquitin ligase activities, have various functions in cellular processes including intracellular signaling, development, apoptosis, protein quality control, innate immunity, autophagy, and carcinogenesis. The ubiquitin system is one of the systems for post-translational modifications, which play crucial roles not only as markers for degradation of target proteins by the proteasome but also as regulators of protein-protein interactions and of the activation of enzymes. Accumulating evidence has shown that TRIM family proteins have unique, important roles and that their dysregulation causes several diseases classified as cancer, immunological disease, or developmental disorders. In this review we focus on recent emerging topics on TRIM proteins in the regulation of autophagy, innate immunity, and carcinogenesis.
Keywords: TRIM; autophagy; cancer; immunity; proteasome; ubiquitin.
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