For centuries, hashish and marihuana, both derived from the Indian hemp Cannabis sativa L., have been used for their medicinal, as well as, their psychotropic effects. These effects are associated with the phytocannabinoids which are oxygen containing C21 aromatic hydrocarbons found in Cannabis sativa L. To date, over 120 phytocannabinoids have been isolated from Cannabis. For many years, it was assumed that the beneficial effects of the phytocannabinoids were mediated by the cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2. However, today we know that the picture is much more complex, with the same phytocannabinoid acting at multiple targets. This contribution focuses on the molecular pharmacology of the phytocannabinoids, including Δ9-THC and CBD, from the prospective of the targets at which these important compounds act.
Keywords: CB1 receptor; CB2 receptor; CBC; CBD; CBDV; CBE; CBG; CBL; CBN; CBND; CBT; CBV; GPCR; Glycine receptor; PPARγ; Phytocannabinoid; THCV; TRPA1 channel; TRPM8 channel; TRPV1 channel; Δ8-THC; Δ9-THC.