The protein dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) is a target in diabetes management and reduction of associated cardiovascular risk. Inhibition of the enzymatic function and genetic deletion of DPP4 is associated with tremendous benefits to the heart, vasculature, adipose tissue, and the kidney in rodent models of obesity, diabetes and hypertension, and associated complications. The recently concluded, "Saxagliptin Assessment of Vascular Outcomes Recorded in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 53" trial revealed a reduction in proteinuria in chronic kidney disease patients (stages 1-3). These results have spurred immense interest in the nonenzymatic and enzymatic role of DPP4 in the kidney. DPP4 is expressed predominantly in the glomeruli and S1-S3 segments of the nephron and to a lesser extent in other segments. DPP4 is known to facilitate absorption of cleaved dipeptides and regulate the function of the sodium/hydrogen exchanger-3 in the proximal tubules. DPP4, also known as CD26, has an important role in costimulation of lymphocytes via caveolin-1 on antigen-presenting cells in peripheral blood. Herein, we present our perspectives for the ongoing interest in the role of DPP4 in the kidney.
Keywords: albuminuria; diabetes; dipeptidyl peptidase 4; immune.