Dual-Functional Hydrazide-Reactive and Anhydride-Containing Oligomeric Hydrogel Building Blocks

Biomacromolecules. 2017 Mar 13;18(3):683-694. doi: 10.1021/acs.biomac.6b01355. Epub 2017 Feb 8.


Biomimetic hydrogels are advanced biomaterials that have been developed following different synthetic routes. Covalent postfabrication functionalization is a promising strategy to achieve efficient matrix modification decoupled of general material properties. To this end, dual-functional macromers were synthesized by free radical polymerization of maleic anhydride with diacetone acrylamide (N-(1,1-dimethyl-3-oxobutyl)acrylamide) and pentaerythritol diacrylate monostearate. Amphiphilic oligomers (Mn < 7.5 kDa) with anhydride contents of 7-20% offered cross-linking reactivity to yield rigid hydrogels with gelatinous peptides (E = 4-13 kPa) and good cell adhesion properties. Mildly reactive methyl ketones as second functionality remained intact during hydrogel formation and potential of covalent matrix modification was shown using hydrazide and hydrazine model compounds. Successful secondary dihydrazide cross-linking was demonstrated by an increase of hydrogel stiffness (>40%). Efficient hydrazide/hydrazine immobilization depending on solution pH, hydrogel ketone content as well as ligand concentration for bioconjugation was shown and reversibility of hydrazone formation was indicated by physiologically relevant hydrazide release over 7 days. Proof-of-concept experiments with hydrazido-functionalized hyaluronan demonstrated potential for covalent aECM immobilization. The presented dual-functional macromers have perspective as reactive hydrogel building blocks for various biomedical applications.

MeSH terms

  • Acrylamides / chemistry
  • Acrylates / chemistry
  • Adipates / chemistry
  • Biocompatible Materials / chemistry*
  • Cell Adhesion
  • Cell Survival / drug effects
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Gelatin / chemistry
  • Humans
  • Hyaluronic Acid / chemistry
  • Hydrogels / chemistry*
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Ketones / chemistry
  • Maleic Anhydrides / chemistry*
  • Polyethylene Glycols / chemistry
  • Polymerization
  • Stearates / chemistry


  • Acrylamides
  • Acrylates
  • Adipates
  • Biocompatible Materials
  • Hydrogels
  • Ketones
  • Maleic Anhydrides
  • N-(1,1-dimethyl-3-oxobutyl)acrylamide
  • Stearates
  • pentaerythritol diacrylate monostearate
  • Polyethylene Glycols
  • Gelatin
  • Hyaluronic Acid
  • adipic dihydrazide