Validity evidence for the adaptation of the State Mindfulness Scale for Physical Activity (SMS-PA) in Spanish youth

Psicothema. 2017 Feb;29(1):119-125. doi: 10.7334/psicothema2016.204.


Background: Mindfulness is an increasingly popular construct with promise in enhancing multiple positive health outcomes. Physical activity is an important behavior for enhancing overall health, but no Spanish language scale exists to test how mindfulness during physical activity may facilitate physical activity motivation or behavior. This study examined the validity of a Spanish adaption of a new scale, the State Mindfulness Scale for Physical Activity, to assess mindfulness during a specific experience of physical activity.

Method: Spanish youths (N = 502) completed a cross-sectional survey of state mindfulness during physical activity and physical activity motivation regulations based on Self-Determination Theory.

Results: A high-order model fit the data well and supports the use of one general state mindfulness factor or the use of separate subscales of mindfulness of mental (e.g., thoughts, emotions) and body (physical movement, muscles) aspects of the experience. Internal consistency reliability was good for the general scale and both sub-scales. The pattern of correlations with motivation regulations provides further support for construct validity with significant and positive correlations with self-determined forms of motivation and significant and negative correlations with external regulation and amotivation.

Conclusions: Initial validity evidence is promising for the use of the adapted measure.

Publication types

  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adolescent Behavior*
  • Adult
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Exercise*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Language
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mindfulness*
  • Motivation
  • Personal Autonomy
  • Psychology, Adolescent*
  • Psychometrics
  • Psychomotor Performance
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Spain
  • Sports / psychology*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires*
  • Translating
  • Young Adult