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Practice Guideline
. 2017 Feb;181S:S4-S15.e1.
doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2016.09.064.

Diagnosis of Cystic Fibrosis: Consensus Guidelines From the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation

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Practice Guideline

Diagnosis of Cystic Fibrosis: Consensus Guidelines From the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation

Philip M Farrell et al. J Pediatr. .
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Erratum in

  • Correction.
    J Pediatr. 2017 May;184:243. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2017.02.028. J Pediatr. 2017. PMID: 28434573 No abstract available.


Objective: Cystic fibrosis (CF), caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, continues to present diagnostic challenges. Newborn screening and an evolving understanding of CF genetics have prompted a reconsideration of the diagnosis criteria.

Study design: To improve diagnosis and achieve standardized definitions worldwide, the CF Foundation convened a committee of 32 experts in CF diagnosis from 9 countries to develop clear and actionable consensus guidelines on the diagnosis of CF and to clarify diagnostic criteria and terminology for other disorders associated with CFTR mutations. An a priori threshold of ≥80% affirmative votes was required for acceptance of each recommendation statement.

Results: After reviewing relevant literature, the committee convened to review evidence and cases. Following the conference, consensus statements were developed by an executive subcommittee. The entire consensus committee voted and approved 27 of 28 statements, 7 of which needed revisions and a second round of voting.

Conclusions: It is recommended that diagnoses associated with CFTR mutations in all individuals, from newborn to adult, be established by evaluation of CFTR function with a sweat chloride test. The latest mutation classifications annotated in the Clinical and Functional Translation of CFTR project ( should be used to aid in diagnosis. Newborns with a high immunoreactive trypsinogen level and inconclusive CFTR functional and genetic testing may be designated CFTR-related metabolic syndrome or CF screen positive, inconclusive diagnosis; these terms are now merged and equivalent, and CFTR-related metabolic syndrome/CF screen positive, inconclusive diagnosis may be used. International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision codes for use in diagnoses associated with CFTR mutations are included.

Keywords: CF-screen positive, inconclusive diagnosis; CFTR-related metabolic syndrome; immunoreactive trypsinogen; intestinal current measurement; nasal potential difference; newborn screening; pancreatitis associated protein; sweat test.

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