The purpose of this review article is to understand the current literature on obesity, diabetes and therapeutic avenues across the world. Diabetes is a chronic lifestyle condition that affects millions of people worldwide and it is a major health concern in our society. Diabetes and obesity are associated with various conditions, including non-modifiable and modifiable risk factors. Early detectable markers are not well established to detect pre-diabetes and as a result, it becomes diabetes. Several published epidemiological studies were assessed and the findings were summarized. Resources from published studies were used to identify criteria used for pre-diabetes, the role of diet in pre-diabetics and potential risks and characteristics associated with pre-diabetes. Preventive strategies are needed to combat diabetes. Individuals diagnosed with pre-diabetes need detailed education, need to fully understand the risk factors and have the ability to manage diabetes. Interventions exist that include chronic disease self-management programs, lifestyle interventions and pharmacological strategies. Obesity plays a large role in causing pre-diabetes and diabetes. Critical analysis of existing epidemiological research data suggests that additional research is needed to determine the efficacy of interventions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Quality in Diabetes/Obesity and Critical Illness Spectrum of Diseases - edited by P. Hemachandra Reddy.
Keywords: Alzheimer's disease; Diabetes; FTO; Obesity.
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