There is very little information on the genetic factors associated with fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes (FCPD). Ninety-eight first-degree relatives of FCPD patients were subjected to detailed studies, which included glucose tolerance tests, x-ray films of the abdomen, ultrasonography, and studies of exocrine pancreatic function. The study shows that there is a familial aggregation of FCPD with evidence of vertical transmission of the disease from parent to offspring in some families. Routine screening of families of FCPD probands helped to pick up cases in the stage of impaired glucose tolerance. There is heterogeneity in FCPD with respect to familial factors. Some families show marked familial aggregation of FCPD while in others the disease occurs either sporadically or in association with other family members who have abnormal glucose handling.