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, 35 (10), 1086-1095

Cancer Susceptibility Gene Mutations in Individuals With Colorectal Cancer

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Cancer Susceptibility Gene Mutations in Individuals With Colorectal Cancer

Matthew B Yurgelun et al. J Clin Oncol.

Abstract

Purpose Hereditary factors play an important role in colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, yet the prevalence of germline cancer susceptibility gene mutations in patients with CRC unselected for high-risk features (eg, early age at diagnosis, personal/family history of cancer or polyps, tumor microsatellite instability [MSI], mismatch repair [MMR] deficiency) is unknown. Patients and Methods We recruited 1,058 participants who received CRC care in a clinic-based setting without preselection for age at diagnosis, personal/family history, or MSI/MMR results. All participants underwent germline testing for mutations in 25 genes associated with inherited cancer risk. Each gene was categorized as high penetrance or moderate penetrance on the basis of published estimates of the lifetime cancer risks conferred by pathogenic germline mutations in that gene. Results One hundred five (9.9%; 95% CI, 8.2% to 11.9%) of 1,058 participants carried one or more pathogenic mutations, including 33 (3.1%) with Lynch syndrome (LS). Twenty-eight (96.6%) of 29 available LS CRCs demonstrated abnormal MSI/MMR results. Seventy-four (7.0%) of 1,058 participants carried non-LS gene mutations, including 23 (2.2%) with mutations in high-penetrance genes (five APC, three biallelic MUTYH, 11 BRCA1/2, two PALB2, one CDKN2A, and one TP53), 15 of whom lacked clinical histories suggestive of their underlying mutation. Thirty-eight (3.6%) participants had moderate-penetrance CRC risk gene mutations (19 monoallelic MUTYH, 17 APC*I1307K, two CHEK2). Neither proband age at CRC diagnosis, family history of CRC, nor personal history of other cancers significantly predicted the presence of pathogenic mutations in non-LS genes. Conclusion Germline cancer susceptibility gene mutations are carried by 9.9% of patients with CRC. MSI/MMR testing reliably identifies LS probands, although 7.0% of patients with CRC carry non-LS mutations, including 1.0% with BRCA1/2 mutations.

Figures

Fig 1.
Fig 1.
Pathogenic mutations identified with a multigene panel among 1,058 individuals with colorectal cancer. *Includes four probands with both a high- and a moderate-penetrance mutation. †One proband carried both an MLH1 and a BRCA2 mutation. ‡Does not include the four probands with concurrent high-penetrance mutations.
Fig A1.
Fig A1.
Number of germline variants of uncertain significance (VUS), per gene, detected with a 25-gene panel in 1,058 patients with colorectal cancer.

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