Warfarin is a recommended therapy to reduce the risk of stroke in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). The objectives of this study were to identify potential factors associated with warfarin persistence and evaluate the impact of warfarin persistence on health-care resource utilization and costs among patients with NVAF in the United States. Patients (≥18 years) with ≥1 inpatient or ≥2 outpatient diagnoses of AF without valvular disease were identified from an electronic medical record database (January 1, 2004, to January 31, 2015). The patients with NVAF were grouped into 2 cohorts-persistent with warfarin therapy and not persistent (warfarin discontinuation in <365 days). A multivariable regression was used to identify potential predictors of warfarin persistence. Health-care costs were evaluated during a 12-month follow-up period for study cohorts. Among the study population, 52%, (n = 4086) were persistent with warfarin therapy and 48% (n = 3722) were not. Patients with NVAF with higher Charlson comorbidity index and CHADS2 scores versus those with scores of 0 were more likely to demonstrate persistence with warfarin therapy. After adjusting for patient characteristics, patients with NVAF persistent with warfarin therapy versus those who were not were 30% less likely to be hospitalized during the follow-up period ( P < .001). Additionally, total all-cause health-care costs (US $2183, P < .001) and stroke-related costs (US $788, P < .001) were significantly lower among patients persistent with warfarin therapy versus those who were not. Patients with NVAF who have greater comorbidity and stroke risk are more likely to be persistent with warfarin therapy. Patients with NVAF who are persistent with warfarin therapy versus those who are not have lower all-cause and stroke-related health-care costs.
Keywords: anticoagulants; clinical epidemiology; stroke.