The expression of VEGF, myoglobin and CRP2 proteins regulating endometrial remodeling in the porcine endometrial tissues during follicular and luteal phase

Anim Sci J. 2017 Sep;88(9):1291-1297. doi: 10.1111/asj.12774. Epub 2017 Jan 31.


Endometrial remodeling is important for successful embryo development and implantation in pigs. Therefore, this study investigated change of proteins regulating endometrial remodeling on follicular and luteal phase in porcine endometrial tissues. The endometrial tissue samples were collected from porcine uterus during follicular and luteal phase, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), myoglobin and cysteine-rich protein 2 (CRP2) proteins were expressed by immnofluorescence, immunoblotting, and determined by 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/MS. We found that VEGF, myoglobin and CRP2 were strongly localized in endometrial tissues during luteal phase, but not follicular phase. The protein levels of VEGF, myoglobin and CRP2 in endometrial tissues were higher than luteal phase (P < 0.05). These results may provide understanding of intrauterine environment during estrous cycle in pigs, and will be used in animal reproduction for developing specific biomarkers in the future.

Keywords: endometrial gland; endometrial tissue; extracellular matrix; follicular phase; luteal phase.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-beta / metabolism*
  • CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-beta / physiology
  • Embryo Implantation / genetics
  • Embryo Implantation / physiology
  • Embryonic Development / genetics
  • Embryonic Development / physiology
  • Endometrium / metabolism*
  • Estrous Cycle / genetics
  • Estrous Cycle / physiology
  • Female
  • Follicular Phase / genetics*
  • Follicular Phase / metabolism*
  • Luteal Phase / genetics*
  • Luteal Phase / metabolism*
  • Myoglobin / metabolism*
  • Myoglobin / physiology
  • Swine / metabolism*
  • Swine / physiology*
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism*
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / physiology


  • CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-beta
  • Myoglobin
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A