Sophorolipid Butyl Ester Diacetate Does Not Affect Macrophage Polarization but Enhances Astrocytic Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Expression at Micromolar Concentrations in Vitro

ACS Chem Neurosci. 2017 Apr 19;8(4):752-758. doi: 10.1021/acschemneuro.6b00451. Epub 2017 Feb 7.


Peritoneal macrophages (PMACs) and spinal cord astrocytes were exposed to varying concentrations of soluble sophorolipid butyl ester diacetate (SLBEDA) in vitro. Macrophages and astrocytes demonstrated no decrease in viability in response to SLBEDA. Studying pro- and anti-inflammatory genes, PMACs did not show a shift toward a pro-inflammatory phenotype. However, at higher concentrations (3 and 30 μM), astrocytes showed an increase in their expression of glial acidic fibrillary protein. This novel category of compounds poses low risk to PMAC and astrocyte viability; however, the effect on PMAC polarization and astrocyte reactivity requires more elucidation.

Keywords: Macrophage; astrocyte; sophorolipid; spinal cord injury.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Astrocytes / metabolism*
  • Cell Polarity / drug effects*
  • Cell Survival / drug effects
  • Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / biosynthesis*
  • Glycolipids / pharmacology*
  • Macrophages / cytology
  • Macrophages / drug effects*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Neuroprotective Agents / pharmacology*


  • Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
  • Glycolipids
  • Neuroprotective Agents
  • sophorolipid butyl ester diacetate