Background: Gabapentinoid (pregabalin and gabapentin) abuse is increasingly being reported.
Objective: To assess the extent of gabapentinoid abuse, characteristics of typical abusers, patterns of abuse, and potential harms in order to bring this trend to providers' attention.
Methods: A systematic review of MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov, and US FDA data, indexed through 28 July 2016, utilizing the following searches: pregabalin OR gabapentin OR gabapentinoid AND one of the following: abuse, misuse, overdose, or substance-related disorders[MESH], was conducted. Additional studies were identified through review of references. English-language epidemiological studies, clinical studies, and case reports/series of gabapentinoid abuse/misuse/overdose were included. The authors reached consensus regarding study inclusion after full-text review. The body of literature was assessed for bias qualitatively.
Results: Fifty-nine studies were included in this systematic review (24 epidemiological, three clinical abuse liability, 16 abuse/misuse/dependence case reports/series, 17 acute overdose case reports/series-one included both an epidemiological study and case series and was included in both counts). Analysis of these studies indicates increasing numbers of patients are self-administering higher than recommended doses to achieve euphoric highs. In the general population, a 1.6% prevalence of gabapentinoid abuse was observed, whereas prevalence ranged from 3% to 68% among opioid abusers. An international adverse event database identified 11,940 reports of gabapentinoid abuse from 2004-2015, with >75% reported since 2012. Risk factors include a history of substance abuse, particularly opioids, and psychiatric co-morbidities. While effects of excessively high doses are generally non-lethal, gabapentinoids are increasingly being identified in post-mortem toxicology analyses.
Conclusion: Evidence suggests gabapentinoids possess potential for abuse, particularly in individuals with a history of opioid abuse, and reports of such abuse are increasingly being documented. Prescribers should be aware of high-risk populations and monitor for signs of abuse.