Human Biology-Based Drug Safety Evaluation: Scientific Rationale, Current Status and Future Challenges

Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2017 May;13(5):567-574. doi: 10.1080/17425255.2017.1290082. Epub 2017 Feb 14.

Abstract

Animal toxicity studies used to assess the safety of new candidate pharmaceuticals prior to their progression into human clinical trials are unable to assess the risk of non-pharmacologically mediated idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions (ADRs), the most frequent of which are drug-induced liver injury and cardiotoxicity. Idiosyncratic ADRs occur only infrequently and in certain susceptible humans, but are caused by many hundreds of different drugs and may lead to serious illness. Areas covered: Idiosyncratic ADRs are initiated by drug-related chemical insults, which cause toxicity due to susceptibility factors that manifest only in certain patients. The chemical insults can be detected using in vitro assays. These enable useful discrimination between drugs that cause high versus low levels of idiosyncratic ADR concern. Especially promising assays, which have been described recently in peer-reviewed scientific literature, are highlighted. Expert opinion: Effective interpretation of in vitro toxicity data requires integration of endpoints from multiple assays, which each address different mechanisms, and must also take account of human systemic and tissue drug exposure in vivo. Widespread acceptance and use of such assays has been hampered by the lack of correlation between idiosyncratic human ADR risk and toxicities observed in vivo in animals.

Keywords: Adverse drug reactions; cardiotoxicity; in vitro assays; liver injury.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cardiotoxicity / diagnosis
  • Cardiotoxicity / epidemiology
  • Cardiotoxicity / etiology
  • Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury / diagnosis
  • Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury / epidemiology
  • Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury / etiology
  • Drug Design*
  • Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions / diagnosis*
  • Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions / epidemiology
  • Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions / etiology
  • Endpoint Determination
  • Humans
  • Species Specificity
  • Toxicity Tests / methods*