Objectives: Platelet rich plasma (PRP) has been utilized in regenerative dentistry as a supra-physiological concentrate of autologous growth factors capable of stimulating tissue regeneration. Despite this, concerns have been expressed regarding the use of anti-coagulants, agents known to inhibit wound healing. In this study, a liquid formulation of platelet rich fibrin (PRF) termed injectable-PRF (i-PRF) without the use of anti-coagulants was investigated.
Materials and methods: Standard PRP and i-PRF (centrifuged at 700 rpm (60G) for 3 min) were compared for growth factor release up to 10 days (8 donor samples). Furthermore, fibroblast biocompatibility at 24 h (live/dead assay); migration at 24 h; proliferation at 1, 3, and 5 days, and expression of PDGF, TGF-β, and collagen1 at 3 and 7 days were investigated.
Results: Growth factor release demonstrated that in general PRP had higher early release of growth factors whereas i-PRF showed significantly higher levels of total long-term release of PDGF-AA, PDGF-AB, EGF, and IGF-1 after 10 days. PRP showed higher levels of TGF-β1 and VEGF at 10 days. While both formulations exhibited high biocompatibility and higher fibroblast migration and proliferation when compared to control tissue-culture plastic, i-PRF induced significantly highest migration whereas PRP demonstrated significantly highest cellular proliferation. Furthermore, i-PRF showed significantly highest mRNA levels of TGF-β at 7 days, PDGF at 3 days, and collagen1 expression at both 3 and 7 days when compared to PRP.
Conclusions: i-PRF demonstrated the ability to release higher concentrations of various growth factors and induced higher fibroblast migration and expression of PDGF, TGF-β, and collagen1. Future animal research is now necessary to further validate the use of i-PRF as a bioactive agent capable of stimulating tissue regeneration.
Clinical relevance: The findings from the present study demonstrate that a potent formulation of liquid platelet concentrates could be obtained without use of anti-coagulants.
Keywords: Blood platelets; Fibrin; Fibroblasts; Platelet rich fibrin; Regeneration; Wound healing.