In tissue engineering, biomaterials are used as scaffolds for spatial distribution of specific cell types. Biomaterials can potentially influence cell proliferation and extracellular matrix formation, both in positive and negative ways. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare mineralized matrix production of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSC), cultured on 17 different well-characterized polymers. Osteogenic differentiation of DPSC was induced for 21 days on biomaterials using dexamethasone, L-ascorbic-acid-2-phosphate, and sodium β-glycerophosphate. Success of differentiation was analyzed by quantitative RealTime PCR, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and visualization of calcium accumulations by alizarin red staining with subsequent quantification by colorimetric method. All of the tested biomaterials of an established biomaterial bank enabled a mineralized matrix formation of the DPSC after osteoinductive stimulation. Mineralization on poly(tetrafluoro ethylene) (PTFE), poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS), Texin, LT706, poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL), polyesteramide type-C (PEA-C), hyaluronic acid, and fibrin was significantly enhanced (p<0.05) compared to standard tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) as control. In particular, PEA-C, hyaluronic acid, and fibrin promoted superior mineralization values. These results were confirmed by ALP activity on the same materials. Different biomaterials differentially influence the differentiation and mineralized matrix formation of human DPSC. Based on the present results, promising biomaterial candidates for bone-related tissue engineering applications in combination with DPSC can be selected.
Keywords: biomaterials; dental pulp stem cells (DPSC); matrix production; mineralization.