Visualization of Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-Bisphosphate Dynamics by a Tandem ML1N-Based Fluorescent Protein Probe in Arabidopsis

Plant Cell Physiol. 2017 Jul 1;58(7):1185-1195. doi: 10.1093/pcp/pcx011.


Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate [PI(3,5)P2] is a low-abundance phospholipid known to be associated with a wide variety of physiological functions in plants. However, the localization and dynamics of PI(3,5)P2 in plant cells remain largely unknown, partially due to the lack of an effective fluorescent probe. Using Arabidopsis transgenic plant expressing the PI(3,5)P2-labeling fluorescent probe (tagRFP-ML1N*2) developed based on a tandem repeat of the cytosolic phosphoinositide-interacting domain (ML1N) of the mammalian lysosomal transient receptor potential cation channel, Mucolipin 1 (TRPML1), here we show that PI(3,5)P2 is predominantly localized on the limited membranes of the FAB1- and SNX1-positive late endosomes, but rarely localized on the membranes of plant vacuoles or trans-Golgi network/early endosomes of cortical cells of the root differentiation zone. The late endosomal localization of tagRFP-ML1N*2 is reduced or abolished by pharmacological inhibition or genetic knockdown of expression of genes encoding PI(3,5)P2-synthesizing enzymes, FAB1A/B, but markedly increased with FAB1A overexpression. Notably, reactive oxygen species (ROS) significantly increase late endosomal levels of PI(3,5)P2. Thus, tandem ML1N-based PI(3,5)P2 probes can reliably monitor intracellular dynamics of PI(3,5)P2 in Arabidopsis cells with less binding activity to other endomembrane organelles.

Keywords: Arabidopsis; Fluorescent protein probe; Late endosomes; ML1N*2; PI(3,5)P2; YM201636.

MeSH terms

  • Arabidopsis / cytology
  • Arabidopsis / genetics
  • Arabidopsis / metabolism*
  • Endosomes / metabolism
  • Fluorescent Dyes / metabolism*
  • Luminescent Proteins / genetics
  • Luminescent Proteins / metabolism
  • Lysosomes / metabolism
  • Microscopy, Confocal
  • Phosphatidylinositol Phosphates / metabolism*
  • Phosphatidylinositols / analysis
  • Plant Roots / cytology
  • Plant Roots / genetics
  • Plant Roots / metabolism
  • Plants, Genetically Modified
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • Transport Vesicles / metabolism
  • Vacuoles / metabolism
  • trans-Golgi Network / metabolism


  • Fluorescent Dyes
  • Luminescent Proteins
  • Phosphatidylinositol Phosphates
  • Phosphatidylinositols
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • phosphatidylinositol 3,5-diphosphate
  • red fluorescent protein