Racial Variation in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Among European Children on Renal Replacement Therapy-Results From the European Society for Paediatric Nephrology/European Renal Association - European Dialysis and Transplant Association Registry

Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2017 Nov 1;32(11):1908-1917. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfw423.


Background: Racial differences in overall mortality rates have been found in children on renal replacement therapy (RRT). We used data from the European Society for Paediatric Nephrology/European Renal Association - European Dialysis and Transplant Association Registry to study racial variation in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among European children on RRT.

Methods: We included patients aged <20 years between 2006-13 who (i) initiated dialysis treatment or (ii) had a renal transplant vintage of ≥1 year. Racial groups were defined as white, black, Asian and other. The CVD risk factors assessed included uncontrolled hypertension, obesity, hyperphosphataemia and anaemia. Differences between racial groups in CVD risk factors were examined using generalized estimating equation (GEE) models while adjusting for potential confounders.

Results: In this study, 1161 patients on dialysis and 1663 patients with a transplant were included. The majority of patients in both groups were white (73.8% and 79.9%, respectively). The crude prevalence of the CVD risk factors was similar across racial groups. However, after adjustment for potential confounders, Asian background was associated with higher risk of uncontrolled hypertension both in the dialysis group [odds ratio (OR): 1.27; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-1.64] and the transplant group (OR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.11-1.68) compared with white patients. Patients of Asian and other racial background with a renal transplant had a higher risk of anaemia compared with white patients (OR: 1.50; 95% CI: 1.15-1.96 and OR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.01-2.07, respectively). Finally, the mean number of CVD risk factors among dialysis patients was higher in Asian patients (1.83, 95% CI: 1.64-2.04) compared with white patients (1.52, 95% CI: 1.40-1.65).

Conclusions: We found a higher prevalence of modifiable CVD risk factors in Asian children on RRT. Early identification and management of these risk factors could potentially improve long-term outcomes.

Keywords: cardiovascular disease; children; dialysis; ethnicity; kidney transplantation.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • African Continental Ancestry Group
  • Asian Continental Ancestry Group
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Europe
  • European Continental Ancestry Group
  • Female
  • Healthcare Disparities
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / ethnology
  • Hypertension / mortality*
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / ethnology
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / mortality*
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / surgery
  • Kidney Transplantation
  • Male
  • Obesity / ethnology
  • Obesity / mortality*
  • Prevalence
  • Registries
  • Renal Dialysis
  • Risk Factors
  • Treatment Outcome