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Review
. 2017 Mar;12(1):1-22.
doi: 10.1016/j.jsmc.2016.10.012. Epub 2016 Dec 20.

Sleep, Health, and Society

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Free PMC article
Review

Sleep, Health, and Society

Michael A Grandner. Sleep Med Clin. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Biological needs for sleep are met by engaging in behaviors that are largely influenced by the environment, social norms and demands, and societal influences and pressures. Insufficient sleep duration and sleep disorders such as insomnia and sleep apnea are highly prevalent in the US population. This article outlines some of these downstream factors, including cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk, neurocognitive dysfunction, and mortality, as well as societal factors such as age, sex, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomics. This review also discusses societal factors related to sleep, such as globalization, health disparities, public policy, public safety, and changing patterns of use of technology.

Keywords: Disparities; Epidemiology; Health; Sleep; Sleep disorders; Social factors; Society.

Figures

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.
Social ecological model of sleep.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.
Social ecological model of sleep and health.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.
Health belief model.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.
Integrated behavior model.

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