Hormonal and Surgical Treatment Options for Transgender Women and Transfeminine Spectrum Persons

Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2017 Mar;40(1):99-111. doi: 10.1016/j.psc.2016.10.006. Epub 2016 Dec 22.


Transgender women and other transfeminine spectrum people may pursue hormonal and/or surgical gender-affirming interventions. Hormone therapy includes androgen blockade and estrogen supplementation. Approaches to hormone treatment vary widely based on patient goals and physiology. Surgical procedures are available, including genital affirmation surgery, breast augmentation, and head or neck feminization procedures. Many people are unable to obtain surgeries owing to prohibitive costs and long waiting lists. Hormonal and surgical therapies improve quality of life and mental health with minimal adverse effects. Ongoing research is needed to improve understanding about specific risks of hormone therapy and surgical outcomes.

Keywords: Cross-sex hormones; Feminizing hormones; Feminizing surgery; Gender-affirming care; Transgender.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Female
  • Hormone Replacement Therapy / psychology*
  • Humans
  • Sex Reassignment Surgery / psychology*
  • Transgender Persons / psychology*