Fabric phase sorptive extraction of selected penicillin antibiotic residues from intact milk followed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection

Food Chem. 2017 Jun 1;224:131-138. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.12.024. Epub 2016 Dec 15.


Fabric phase sorptive extraction (FPSE), a novel sorbent-based microextraction method, was evaluated as a simple and rapid strategy for the extraction of four penicillin antibiotic residues (benzylpenicillin, cloxacillin, dicloxacillin and oxacillin) from cows' milk, without prior protein precipitation. Time-consuming solvent evaporation and reconstitution steps were eliminated successfully from the sample preparation workflow. FPSE utilizes a flexible fabric substrate, chemically coated with sol-gel derived, highly efficient, organic-inorganic hybrid sorbent as the extraction medium. Herein short-chain poly(ethylene glycol) provided optimum extraction sensitivity for the selected penicillins, which were analysed using an RP-HPLC method, validated according to the European Decision 657/2002/EC. The limit of quantitation was 10μg/kg for benzylpenicillin, 20μg/kg for cloxacillin, 25μg/kg dicloxacillin and 30μg/kg oxacillin. These are a similar order of magnitude with those reported in the literature and (with the exception of benzylpenicillin) are less than the maximum residue limits (MRL) set by European legislation.

Keywords: Fabric phase sorptive extraction (FPSE); HPLC; Milk; Penicillin antibiotics; Sample preparation; Sorptive extraction.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / administration & dosage
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / analysis*
  • Cattle
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid / methods
  • Female
  • Food Contamination / analysis*
  • Liquid Phase Microextraction / methods*
  • Milk / chemistry*
  • Milk / drug effects
  • Penicillin G / administration & dosage
  • Penicillin G / analysis
  • Penicillins / administration & dosage
  • Penicillins / analysis*


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Penicillins
  • Penicillin G