A novel technique of "anterior offsetting" of the humeral head component to address posterior instability in total shoulder arthroplasty has been proposed, and its biomechanical benefits have been previously demonstrated experimentally. The present study sought to characterize the changes in joint mechanics associated with anterior offsetting with various amounts of glenoid retroversion using cadaver specimen-specific 3-dimensional finite element models. Specimen-specific computational finite element models were developed through importing digitized locations of six musculotendinous units of the rotator cuff and deltoid muscles based off three cadaveric shoulder specimens implanted with total shoulder arthroplasty in either anatomic or anterior humeral head offset. Additional glenoid retroversion angles (0°, 10°, 20°, and 30°) other than each specimen׳s actual retroversion were modeled. Contact area, contact force, peak pressure, center of pressure, and humeral head displacement were calculated at each offset and retroversion for statistical analysis. Anterior offsetting was associated with significant anterior shift of center of pressure and humeral head displacement upon muscle loading (p<0.05). Although statistically insignificant, anterior offsetting was associated with increased contact area and decreased peak pressure (p > 0.05). All study variables showed significant differences when compared between the 4 different glenoid retroversion angles (p < 0.05) except for total force (p < 0.05). The study finding suggests that the anterior offsetting technique may contribute to joint stability in posteriorly unstable shoulder arthroplasty and may reduce eccentric loading on glenoid components although the long term clinical results are yet to be investigated in future.
Keywords: Anterior offsetting technique; Finite element model; Glenoid retroversion; Posterior instability; Total shoulder arthroplasty.
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