Association of serum pancreatic derived factor (PANDER) with beta-cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus

J Diabetes Complications. 2017 Apr;31(4):748-752. doi: 10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2017.01.001. Epub 2017 Jan 20.


Aim: Beta-cell dysfunction is the critical determinant for type 2 diabetes. The novel PANcreatic DERived factor (PANDER) has been identified as interesting islet-secreted cytokine that might be involved in beta-cell dysfunction, a role that has n"ot been clinically elucidated yet. Therefore, this study was designed to study the potential clinical association of this cytokine with beta-cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes.

Methods: Anthropometric parameters, routine biochemical markers and serum levels of PANDER were measured in 63 diabetic subjects including; recently diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients with duration of diabetes ≤6months and long-standing type 2 diabetic patients with duration of diabetes ≥5years then compared to 16 healthy control volunteers. Proinsulin, C-peptide, insulin and PANDER were measured by ELISA. Beta-cell dysfunction was assessed by HOMA2-%β, proinsulin, proinsulin-to-insulin (PI/I) ratio and proinsulin-to-C-peptide (PI/C-pep) ratio. Relations among various parameters were studied using simple and multiple linear regressions.

Results: Serum PANDER levels were found to be significantly elevated in long-standing diabetics as compared to recently diagnosed diabetics and controls. In addition, PANDER was found to be significantly correlated negatively to HOMA2-%β, as well as positively to proinsulin, PI/I and PI/C-pep ratios.

Conclusion: PANDER is associated with beta-cell dysfunction in diabetic patients.

Keywords: Beta-cell dysfunction; HOMA-2%β; Islet-secreted cytokine; PANDER; Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • C-Peptide / blood
  • Cytokines / blood*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / metabolism*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / physiopathology
  • Disease Progression
  • Egypt
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Female
  • Hospitals, Special
  • Humans
  • Insulin / blood
  • Insulin / metabolism*
  • Insulin Resistance*
  • Insulin Secretion
  • Insulin-Secreting Cells / metabolism*
  • Linear Models
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Proteins / blood*
  • Outpatient Clinics, Hospital
  • Proinsulin / blood
  • Up-Regulation*


  • Biomarkers
  • C-Peptide
  • Cytokines
  • FAM3B protein, human
  • Insulin
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Proinsulin