Identification and determination of disinfection byproducts in chlorine-containing household cleansing products

Chemosphere. 2017 May;174:157-164. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.01.090. Epub 2017 Jan 20.


Seven halogenated volatile organic compounds (HVOCs) and two haloacetic acids were detected and quantified in 15 household products, including sodium hypochlorite, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Chloroform was detected in a range of 0.2-30.2 mg kg-1 in all products, and carbon tetrachloride was observed in 13 samples in a range of 0.05-352 mg kg-1. Dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid were also detected up to 94 and 146 mg kg-1 in household products. The estimated human exposures of chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid were calculated to 0.041, 0.240, 0.913 and 2.39 mg/kg/day by the exposure algorithm from the Japan National Institute of Technology and Evaluation, respectively. According to the calculated result, the total estimated human exposure of chloroform were determined to exceed the tolerable concentration of inhalation exposure presented by the World Health Organization. The DBPs should be controlled to the lowest concentrations in the chlorine-containing household cleansing products.

Keywords: Estimated human exposure; Haloacetic acid; Halogenated volatile organic compounds; Household cleansing product; Sodium hypochlorite.

MeSH terms

  • Chlorine / chemistry*
  • Disinfectants / analysis*
  • Disinfectants / chemistry*
  • Disinfection / methods
  • Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
  • Household Products / analysis*
  • Humans
  • Japan
  • Volatile Organic Compounds / analysis*
  • Volatile Organic Compounds / chemistry


  • Disinfectants
  • Volatile Organic Compounds
  • Chlorine