Soccer injuries to the brain. A neurologic and electroencephalographic study of former players

Acta Neurol Scand. 1989 Aug;80(2):151-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.1989.tb03858.x.


Thirty-seven former football players of the Norwegian national team underwent a neurological and electroencephalographic (EEG) examination to investigate the incidence of head injuries due to heading the ball. Sixteen players complained of protracted and permanent symptoms commonly attributed to the post-concussional syndrome: headache, irritability, dizziness, lack of concentration and impaired memory. A significantly increased incidence of EEG abnormalities was found in players compared with matched controls. The high incidence of EEG changes is probably the result of a cumulative effect due to repeated head traumas.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Brain Injuries / etiology
  • Brain Injuries / physiopathology*
  • Electroencephalography
  • Football / injuries*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged