Regulation of muscle growth and regeneration by the immune system

Nat Rev Immunol. 2017 Mar;17(3):165-178. doi: 10.1038/nri.2016.150. Epub 2017 Feb 6.


Diseases of muscle that are caused by pathological interactions between muscle and the immune system are devastating, but rare. However, muscle injuries that involve trauma and regeneration are fairly common, and inflammation is a clear feature of the regenerative process. Investigations of the inflammatory response to muscle injury have now revealed that the apparently nonspecific inflammatory response to trauma is actually a complex and coordinated interaction between muscle and the immune system that determines the success or failure of tissue regeneration.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Humans
  • Muscle, Skeletal / growth & development*
  • Muscle, Skeletal / immunology*
  • Muscle, Skeletal / injuries
  • Regeneration / immunology*