Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
Review
, 6 (1), 2

Gravitational Waves From Gravitational Collapse

Affiliations
Review

Gravitational Waves From Gravitational Collapse

Chris L Fryer et al. Living Rev Relativ.

Abstract

Gravitational wave emission from stellar collapse has been studied for more than three decades. Current state-of-the-art numerical investigations of collapse include those that use progenitors with more realistic angular momentum profiles, properly treat microphysics issues, account for general relativity, and examine non-axisymmetric effects in three dimensions. Such simulations predict that gravitational waves from various phenomena associated with gravitational collapse could be detectable with ground-based and space-based interferometric observatories. This review covers the entire range of stellar collapse sources of gravitational waves: from the accretion induced collapse of a white dwarf through the collapse down to neutron stars or black holes of massive stars to the collapse of supermassive stars.

Electronic supplementary material: Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.12942/lrr-2003-2.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
The final fate of accretion OMgNe white dwarfs as a function of the initial white dwarf mass and the accretion rate onto the white dwarf. (Figure 3 of [ 187 ]; used with permission.)
Figure 2
Figure 2
A comparison between the GW amplitude h(f) for various sources and the LIGO-II sensitivity curve. See the text for details regarding the computations of h. The AIC sources are assumed to be located at a distance of 100 Mpc; the SNe sources at 10 Mpc; and the Population III sources at a luminosity distance of ∼50 Gpc. Secular bar-mode sources are identified with an (s), dynamical bar-modes with a (d).
Figure 18
Figure 18
A comparison between the GW amplitude h(f) for various sources and the LISA noise curve. See the text for details regarding the computations of h. The SMS sources are assumed to be located at a luminosity distance of 50 Gpc. The bar-mode source is a dynamical bar-mode.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Type I waveform (quadrupole amplitude A 20E2 as a function of time) from one of Zwerger and Müller’s [ 271 ] simulations of a collapsing polytrope. The vertical dotted line marks the time at which the first bounce occurred. (Figure 5d of [ 271 ]; used with permission.)
Figure 4
Figure 4
Type II waveform (quadrupole amplitude A 20E2 as a function of time) from one of Zwerger and Müller’s [ 271 ] simulations of a collapsing polytrope. The vertical dotted line marks the time at which bounce occurred. (Figure 5a of [ 271 ]; used with permission.)
Figure 5
Figure 5
Type III waveform (quadrupole amplitude A 20E2 as a function of time) from one of Zwerger and Müller’s [ 271 ] simulations of a collapsing polytrope. The vertical dotted line marks the time at which bounce occurred. (Figure 5e of [ 271 ]; used with permission).
Figure 6
Figure 6
mov-Movie (9.79 MB)Still from a Movie showing the evolution of a secular bar instability, see Ou et al. [191] for details.(For video see appendix)
Figure 7
Figure 7
mpg-Movie (11.83 MB)Still from a Movie showing the evolution of the regular collapse model A3B2G4 of Dimmelmeier et al. [60]. The left frame contains the 2D evolution of the logarithmic density. The upper and lower right frames display the evolutions of the gravitational wave amplitude and the maximum density, respectively. (For video see appendix)
Figure 8
Figure 8
mpg-Movie (10.55 MB)Still from a Movie showing the same as Movie 7, but for rapid collapse model A3B2G5 of Dimmelmeier et al. [60]. (For video see appendix)
Figure 9
Figure 9
mpg-Movie (12.46 MB)Still from a Movie showing the same as Movie 7, but for multiple collapse model A2B4G1 of Dimmelmeier et al. [60]. (For video see appendix)
Figure 10
Figure 10
mpg-Movie (8.93 MB)Still from a Movie showing the same as Movie 7, but for rapid, differentially rotating collapse model A4B5G5 of Dimmelmeier et al. [60]. (For video see appendix)
Figure 11
Figure 11
The gravitational waveform (including separate matter and neutrino contributions) from the collapse simulations of Burrows and Hayes [ 41 ]. The curves plot the gravitational wave amplitude of the source as a function of time. (Figure 3 of [ 41 ]; used with permission.)
Figure 12
Figure 12
The gravitational waveform for matter contributions from the asymmetric collapse simulations of Fryer et al. [ 87 ]. The curves plot the the gravitational wave amplitude of the source as a function of time. (Figure 3 of [ 87 ]; used with permission.)
Figure 13
Figure 13
The gravitational waveform for neutrino contributions from the asymmetric collapse simulations of Fryer et al. [ 87 ]. The curves plot the product of the gravitational wave amplitude to the source as a function of time. (Figure 8 of [ 87 ]; used with permission.)
Figure 14
Figure 14
Convective instabilities inside the proto-neutron star in the 2D simulation of Müller and Janka [176]. The evolutions of the temperature (left panels) and logarithmic density (right panels) distributions are shown for the radial region 15–95 km. The upper and lower panels correspond to times 12 and 21 ms, respectively, after the start of the simulation. The temperature values range from 2.5×1010 to 1.8×1011 K. The values of the logarithm of the density range from 10.5 to 13.3 g cm-3. The temperature and density both increase as the colors change from blue to green, yellow, and red. (Figure 7 of [176]; used with permission.)
Figure 15
Figure 15
Quadrupole amplitudes A20E2 [cm] from convective instabilities in various models of [176]. The upper left panel is the amplitude from a 2D simulation of proto-neutron star convection. The other three panels are amplitudes from 2D simulations of hot bubble convection. The imposed neutrino flux in the hot bubble simulations increases from the top right model through the bottom right model. (Figure 18 of [176]; used with permission.)
Figure 16
Figure 16
gif-Movie (16.36 MB)Still from a Movie showing the isosurface of material with radial velocities of 1000 km s-1 for 3 different simulation resolutions. The isosurface outlines the outward moving convective bubbles. The open spaces mark the downflows. Note that the upwelling bubbles are large and have very similar size scales to the two-dimensional simulations. (For video see appendix)
Figure 17
Figure 17
avi-Movie (4.17 MB)Still from a Movie showing the oscillation of the proto-neutron star caused by acoustic instabilities in the convective region above the shock. (For video see appendix)
Figure 19
Figure 19
Meridional plane density contours from the SMS collapse simulation of Saijo, Baumgarte, Shapiro, and Shibata [208]. The contour lines denote densities formula image, where ρc is the central density. The frames are plotted at (t/tD, ρc, d)=(a)(5.0628×10-4, 8.254×10-9, 10-7), (b)(2.50259, 1.225×10-4, 10-5), (c)(2.05360, 8.328×10-3, 5.585×10-7), (d)(2.50405, 3.425×10-2, 1.357×10-7), respectively. Here t, tD, and M0 are the time, dynamical time ( formula image, where Re is the initial equatorial radius and M is the mass), and rest mass. (Figure 15 of [208]; used with permission.)

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 2 articles

References

    1. Abel T, Bryan GL, Norman ML. The Formation and Fragmentation of Primordial Molecular Clouds. Astrophys. J. 2000;540:39–44. doi: 10.1086/309295. - DOI
    1. Abel T, Bryan GL, Norman ML. The formation of the first star in the universe. Science. 2002;295:93–98. doi: 10.1126/science.1063991. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Akiyama S, Wheeler JC. Magnetic Fields in Supernovae. In: Fryer CL, editor. Stellar Collapse; Dordrecht, Netherlands; Boston, U.S.A.: Kluwer Academic Publishers; 2004.
    1. Alcubierre M, Brügmann B, Holz DE, Takahashi R, Brandt S, Seidel E, Thornburg J. Symmetry without symmetry: Numerical simulation of axisymmetric systems using Cartesian grids. Int. J. Mod. Phys. D. 2001;10:273–289. doi: 10.1142/S0218271801000834. - DOI
    1. Andersson N. A new class of unstable modes of rotating relativistic stars. Astrophys. J. 1998;502:708–713. doi: 10.1086/305919. - DOI

LinkOut - more resources

Feedback