Man9 GlcNAc2 (Man-9) present at the surface of HIV makes up the binding sites of several HIV-neutralizing agents and the mammalian lectin DC-SIGN, which is involved in cellular immunity and trans-infections. We describe the conformational properties of Man-9 in its free state and when bound by the HIV entry-inhibitor protein microvirin (MVN), and define the minimum epitopes of both MVN and DC-SIGN by using NMR spectroscopy. To facilitate the implementation of 3D 13 C-edited spectra to deconvolute spectral overlap and to determine the solution structure of Man-9, we developed a robust expression system for the production of 13 C,15 N-labeled glycans in mammalian cells. The studies reveal that Man-9 interacts with HIV-binding proteins through distinct epitopes and adopts diverse conformations in the bound state. In combination with molecular dynamics simulations we observed receptor-bound conformations to be sampled by Man-9 in the free state, thus suggesting a conformational selection mechanism for diverse recognition.
Keywords: NMR spectroscopy; carbohydrate recognition; glycan conformation; isotopic labeling; molecular dynamics.
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