Exosomes, nanovesicles secreted by most types of cells, exist in virtually all bodily fluids. Their rich nucleic acid and protein content make them potentially valuable biomarkers for noninvasive molecular diagnostics. They also show promise, after further development, to serve as a drug delivery system. Unfortunately, existing exosome separation technologies, such as ultracentrifugation and methods incorporating magnetic beads, are time-consuming, laborious and separate only exosomes of low purity. Thus, a more effective separation method is highly desirable. Microfluidic platforms are ideal tools for exosome separation, since they enable fast, cost-efficient, portable and precise processing of nanoparticles and small volumes of liquid samples. Recently, several microfluidic-based exosome separation technologies have been studied. In this article, the advantages of the most recent technologies, as well as their limitations, challenges and potential uses in novel microfluidic exosome separation and collection applications is reviewed. This review outlines the uses of new powerful microfluidic exosome detection tools for biologists and clinicians, as well as exosome separation tools for microfluidic engineers. Current challenges of exosome separation methodologies are also described, in order to highlight areas for future research and development.
Keywords: Exosomes; Extracellular vesicles; Microfluidics; Separation.
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