Interventions to Reduce Myopia Progression in Children

Strabismus. 2017 Mar;25(1):23-32. doi: 10.1080/09273972.2016.1276940. Epub 2017 Feb 6.


Efforts to reduce the progression of myopia in childhood are on the rise, due to an increasing incidence of myopia worldwide and its associated sight-threatening complications. Interventions are aimed at reducing myopia in childhood and include environmental considerations, spectacles, contact lenses, and pharmacological agents. We reviewed recent literature with interventions aimed at reducing myopia progression in children and found that a number of interventions were significant in reducing the progression of myopia. Of these interventions, atropine showed the largest dose-related effect on myopia progression control. Although higher doses are associated with side effects of pupil dilatation, loss of accommodation, near vision blur, and rebound phenomenon, low-dose atropine has also been shown to provide effective myopia control with minimal side effects and rebound. To a lesser degree, bifocal soft contact lenses have also been shown to be effective in reducing the progression of myopia, though compliance is an issue. Similarly, orthokeratology lenses have also been shown to be effective in reducing axial length elongation and myopia progression, though long-term data on its rebound effects are unavailable.

Keywords: atropine; bifocal spectacles; myopia; orthokeratology; progression; progressive additional lens spectacles; soft bifocal contact lenses.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Contact Lenses, Hydrophilic*
  • Disease Progression
  • Eyeglasses*
  • Humans
  • Myopia / physiopathology
  • Myopia / prevention & control*
  • Orthokeratologic Procedures*