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, 33 (1), 1-8

Enhancement of Seed Dehiscence by Seed Treatment With Talaromyces flavus GG01 and GG04 in Ginseng ( Panax ginseng)

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Enhancement of Seed Dehiscence by Seed Treatment With Talaromyces flavus GG01 and GG04 in Ginseng ( Panax ginseng)

Min-Jeong Kim et al. Plant Pathol J.

Abstract

Seed dehiscence of ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Mayer) is affected by moisture, temperature, storage conditions and microbes. Several microbes were isolated from completely dehisced seed coat of ginseng cultivars, Chunpoong and Younpoong at Gumsan, Korea. We investigated the potential of five Talaromyces flavus isolates from the dehiscence of ginseng seed in four traditional stratification facilities. The isolates showed antagonistic activities against fungal plant pathogens, such as Cylindrocarpon destructans, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia nivalis, Botrytis cinerea, and Phytophthora capsici. The dehiscence ratios of ginseng seed increased more than 33% by treatment of T. flavus GG01, GG02, GG04, GG12, and GG23 in comparison to control (28%). Among the treatments, the reformulating treatment of T. flavus isolates GG01 and GG04 showed the highest of stratification ratio of ginseng seed. After 16 weeks, the reformulating treatment of T. flavus isolates GG01 and GG04 significantly enhanced dehiscence of ginseng seed by about 81% compared to the untreated control. The candidate's treatment of T. flavus GG01 and GG04 showed the highest decreasing rate of 93% in seed coat hardness for 112 days in dehiscence period. The results suggested that the pre-inoculation of T. flavus GG01 and GG04 found to be very effective applications in improving dehiscence and germination of ginseng seed.

Keywords: Panax ginseng; Talaromyces flavus; antifungal activity; dehiscence.

Figures

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
Overview of colony color of GG01 (A) and GG04 (B) isolates of Talaromyces flavus cultured on potato dextrose agar at 7 days at 25°C. The exudate and soluble pigment of colony of CG01 (C) and CG04 (D) on the Czapek yeast extract agar (CYA) at 7 days at 25°C. The conidiophores (E) and conidia (F) formed on the CYA.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
Antifungal activities of five isolates of Talaromyces flavus on potato dextrose agar at 25°C for seven days in dark condition. CD, Cylindrocarpon destructans (KACC 40123); FO, Fusarium oxysporum (KACC 44452); RS, Rhizoctonia solani AG2-1 (KACC 40123); PC, Phythopthora capsici (KACC 40181); SN, Sclerotinia nivalis (KACC 45152); BC, Botrytis cinerea (KACC 43521). Means followed by the same letters are not significantly different at P ≤ 0.05 according to Fisher’s protected least significant difference test.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3
Evaluation of seed coat hardness treated with 1.0% (w/w) Talaromyces flavus treatments for the enhancing of ginseng seed coat dehiscence for 112 days. Means followed by the same letters are not significantly different at P ≤ 0.05 according to Fisher’s protected least significant difference test.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4
Estimation of inoculation contents of the reformulating treatment with Talaromyces flavus GG01 and GG04 (1:1, v/v) for enhancement of ginseng seed dehiscence for 112 days. Means followed by the same letters are not significantly different at P ≤ 0.05 according to Fisher’s protected least significant difference test. Control, untreated control.

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