Vitamin D deficiency in mothers, neonates and children

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2018 Jan:175:195-199. doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2017.01.023. Epub 2017 Feb 5.


Vitamin D is produced in response to the exposure of skin to sunlight through UV-B synthesis. It can also be obtained from diet and dietary supplements. Vitamin D is essential for strong bones as it helps to absorb calcium from diet. Vitamin D deficiency mainly occurs if strict vegetarian diet is followed as mostly the source of vitamin D is animal based; therefore, exposure to sunlight is restricted or having dark skin color. Low vitamin D levels results in increased possibility of gestational diabetes among pregnant women, low birth weight and pre-eclampsia in infants, and mothers may suffer bone impairment, osteoporosis, hypocalcaemia, and hypertension. Vitamin D deficiency is directly linked with severe complication in mothers and neonates, causing rickets, poor fetal growth and infantile eczema in neonates. Higher prevalence rate of vitamin D deficiency has led professionals to emphasize on development of relevant precautionary measures.

Keywords: Deficiency; Hypocalcaemia; Osteoporosis; Sunlight; Vitamin D.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Diabetes Complications
  • Diabetes, Gestational / blood*
  • Diabetes, Gestational / diet therapy
  • Diabetes, Gestational / physiopathology
  • Dietary Supplements*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypocalcemia / blood*
  • Hypocalcemia / complications
  • Hypocalcemia / diet therapy
  • Hypocalcemia / physiopathology
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Mothers
  • Osteoporosis / blood*
  • Osteoporosis / complications
  • Osteoporosis / diet therapy
  • Osteoporosis / physiopathology
  • Pre-Eclampsia / blood*
  • Pre-Eclampsia / diet therapy
  • Pre-Eclampsia / physiopathology
  • Pregnancy
  • Sunlight
  • Vitamin D / administration & dosage
  • Vitamin D / analogs & derivatives*
  • Vitamin D / blood
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / blood*
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / complications
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / diet therapy
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / physiopathology


  • Vitamin D
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D