The present study pooled the prevalence of sleep disturbances and depression in community-dwelling older adults (mean age≥60years) and quantified the strength of evidence of the relationship between these two problems. From 23 cross-sectional studies and five sets of baseline data, a high pooled prevalence of sleep disturbances (30.5%), depressive symptoms (18.1%) and coexisting disorders (10.6%) were found. In the 23 cohort studies, self-reported sleep disturbances increased the risk of the onset of depression (relative risk [RR]=1.92). Persistent sleep disturbances increased the risk of the development (RR=3.90), recurrence (RR=7.70), and worsening (RR=1.46) of depression in older adults. Little support was found for a predictive role for objective sleep characteristics in the development of depression. Older adults with depression had a higher risk of developing (RR=1.72) and worsening (RR=1.73) symptoms of sleep disturbances. This review emphasizes the importance of timely interventions in incipient sleep disturbances and depression among older adults, preventing the development of more serious comorbidities.
Keywords: Bidirectional prediction; Cooccurrence; Depression; Older adults; Sleep disturbances.
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