Injury to the male external genitalia: a comprehensive review

Int Urol Nephrol. 2017 Apr;49(4):553-561. doi: 10.1007/s11255-017-1526-x. Epub 2017 Feb 8.


While rare, trauma and injury to the male external genitalia can result in significant consequences regarding function, appearance, psychological effects, and overall quality of life. Due to the relative paucity of literature regarding male external genitalia injuries, few standardized protocols exist. This review aims to outline common clinical causes of male external genitalia injuries by both anatomic location and etiology. Initial stabilization, long-term reconstruction, and coverage options are discussed in detail. Outcomes of complex grafts have favorable success rates of 90-100% in the hands of experienced surgeons. Outcomes of penile, testicular trauma also have favorable outcomes when managed appropriately. Attempts at reconstruction after initial injury stabilization should be undertaken at high-volume centers where a multidisciplinary approach can be employed. This manuscript will be an excellent reference and source that can provide direction for evaluation and management of these complex presentations.

Keywords: External genitalia; Male genital injury; Skin flaps; Trauma.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Amputation, Traumatic / therapy
  • Burns / therapy
  • Fournier Gangrene / complications
  • Fournier Gangrene / therapy*
  • Genital Diseases, Male / microbiology
  • Genital Diseases, Male / therapy*
  • Genitalia, Male / injuries*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Penis / injuries
  • Skin / injuries
  • Skin Transplantation
  • Spermatic Cord / injuries
  • Subcutaneous Tissue / injuries
  • Surgical Flaps
  • Testis / injuries
  • Wounds and Injuries / etiology
  • Wounds and Injuries / therapy