Induction of oxidative stress by bisphenol A and its pleiotropic effects

Environ Mol Mutagen. 2017 Mar;58(2):60-71. doi: 10.1002/em.22072. Epub 2017 Feb 9.


Bisphenol A (BPA) has become a target of intense public scrutiny since concerns about its association with human diseases such as obesity, diabetes, reproductive disorders, and cancer have emerged. BPA is a highly prevalent chemical in consumer products, and human exposure is thought to be ubiquitous. Numerous studies have demonstrated its endocrine disrupting properties and attributed exposure with cytotoxic, genotoxic, and carcinogenic effects; however, the results of these studies are still highly debated and a consensus about BPA's safety and its role in human disease has not been reached. One of the contributing factors is a lack of molecular mechanisms or modes of action that explain the diverse and pleiotropic effects observed after BPA exposure. The increase in BPA research seen over the last ten years has resulted in more studies that examine molecular mechanisms and revealed links between BPA-induced oxidative stress and human disease. Here, a review of the current literature examining BPA exposure and the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or oxidative stress will be provided to examine the landscape of the current BPA literature and provide a framework for understanding how induction of oxidative stress by BPA may contribute to the pleiotropic effects observed after exposure. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:60-71, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Keywords: DNA damage; antioxidant; prooxidant; reactive oxygen species.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / metabolism
  • Benzhydryl Compounds / toxicity*
  • DNA Damage*
  • Environmental Pollutants / toxicity*
  • Genetic Pleiotropy / drug effects*
  • Humans
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects*
  • Oxidative Stress / genetics
  • Phenols / toxicity*
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism


  • Antioxidants
  • Benzhydryl Compounds
  • Environmental Pollutants
  • Phenols
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • bisphenol A