Blepharocheilodontic (BCD) syndrome: New insights on craniofacial and dental features

Am J Med Genet A. 2017 Apr;173(4):905-913. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.38088. Epub 2017 Feb 9.


Blepharocheilodontic (BCD) syndrome is a rare condition characterized by bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP), eyelid abnormalities, and oligodontia. Despite orofacial clefting and oligodontia being central features of the condition, detailed reports of dental and craniofacial characteristics are scarce. The aim of this study was to analyze the dental and craniofacial features in a group of patients with BCD syndrome (three of which were related). Cephalometric radiographic analyses were performed on BCD syndrome patients (all radiographs taken at age 8 years) and compared to 40 randomly selected age-matched controls (20 non-syndromic BCLP, 20 non-cleft). Also, we assessed clinical records, photographs, dental study casts, and dental radiographs to determine the extent and pattern of tooth agenesis, dental morphology and malocclusion. BCD syndrome patients showed a very severe skeletal III malocclusion (maxillary-mandibular sagittal discrepancy) and reduced anterior lower face measurement compared to non-syndromic BCLP and non-cleft controls (P = 0.001, P = 0.027). All patients exhibited oligodontia (mean number of missing permanent teeth 13.7, range 7-17). All patients exhibited missing upper central and lateral incisor, upper canine and premolar teeth. Variations in dental morphology included taurodontism, conical-shaped teeth, and notching of the incisal edges. All patients had a short and narrow maxilla which translated into anterior and posterior cross bites. We conclude that, in our BCD syndrome group, the craniofacial skeletal defects are more severe than patients with BCLP. The pattern of tooth agenesis is unusual as it included teeth that are normally highly resistant to agenesis, namely upper central incisor and canine teeth. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Keywords: Blepharocheilodontic syndrome; cleft lip and palate; craniofacial; dental anomalies; oligodontia.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anodontia / diagnostic imaging*
  • Anodontia / pathology
  • Cephalometry
  • Child
  • Cleft Lip / diagnostic imaging*
  • Cleft Lip / pathology
  • Cleft Palate / diagnostic imaging*
  • Cleft Palate / pathology
  • Cuspid / diagnostic imaging
  • Cuspid / pathology
  • Ectropion / diagnostic imaging*
  • Ectropion / pathology
  • Face / diagnostic imaging*
  • Face / pathology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incisor / diagnostic imaging
  • Incisor / pathology
  • Male
  • Malocclusion / diagnostic imaging*
  • Malocclusion / pathology
  • Mandible / diagnostic imaging
  • Mandible / pathology
  • Maxilla / diagnostic imaging
  • Maxilla / pathology
  • Pedigree
  • Radiography
  • Skull Base / diagnostic imaging*
  • Skull Base / pathology
  • Tooth Abnormalities / diagnostic imaging*
  • Tooth Abnormalities / pathology

Supplementary concepts

  • Blepharo-cheilo-dontic syndrome